Back to Welcome

Pronounciation of Sanskrit signs

 

The vowels are pronounced as follows:

    a (short)   like e in hammer;

    ā (long)     like a in the Indonesian title: Raden;

    i (short)    like i in picnic;

    ī (long)      like ea in speak;

    u (short)    like oo in moon;

    ū (the same, but twice as long);

    ṛ (short)    like ri in river;

    ṝ (long)      like rea in reach;

    lṛ     like lrea in spatel reach;

    e      like in German: der;

    ai     like I, eyes;

    o      like o in blow;

    au    like o in crowd.

 

The half vowels are pronounced as follows:

    y    like y in yoghurt;

    r    like r in run;

    l    like l in light;

    v    like w in water.

 

The gutteral consonants are pronounced as follows (the back part of the tongue always linked with the uvula):

    k    like c in caliber;

    kh  like in knock head;

    g    like in girl;

    gh  like in big horse;

    ṅ   like ng in song.

 

The palatal consonants are pronounced as follows (the back part of the tongue linked with the rear part of the cavity of the palate):

    c     like c in cello;

    ch   like tsch-h in kitsch handel;

    j     like j in jungle;

    jh   like dge-h in bridge-head;

    ñ    like ny in Spanish: niña;

 

The cerebral consonants are pronounced as follows (the tip of the tongue against the front portion of the cavity of the palate):

    ṭ     like t in tube;

    ṭh    like th in Dutch: thijm;

    ḍ    like d in diner;

    ḍh   the same, but with an aspirated h;

    ṇ    like n in Arnold.

 

The dental consonants are pronounced as follows (the tip of the tongue against the upper teath):

    t    like t in take;

    th   like th in hot head;

    d    like d in dump;

    dh   like d-h in red-hot;

    n    like n in never.

 

The labial consonants are pronounced as follows (the lips together):

    p    like p in pot;

    ph   like ph in up head;

    b    like b in bad;

    bh   like b-h in cab-horse;

    m    like m in mother.

 

The sibilant consonants are pronounced as follows:

    ś    like s in German: sprechen (palatal);

    ṣ    like ch in Charlotte (cerebral);

    s    like s in strive.

 

Special signs:

    ṁ (anusvara) like n in angle;

    ḥ (visarga) is otherwise pronounced in the middle of the line than at the end thereof:

      in the middle of a line it is pronounced like a sharp aspirated h that suddenly is stopped, almost as if one would say letter "k";

      at the end of a line it is pronounced like an aspirated h followed by a weak echo of the preceding vowel (like aḥ = aha), but only if the visarga - in a vers of four lines - is present at the end of the second or the fourth line; if not it is pronounced as is stated above: in the middle of a line.

 

Capitals:

 

Ā, Ī, Ū, Ṛ, Ṝ, Ñ, Ḍ, Ṭ, Ḥ, Ṅ, Ṇ, Ś, Ṣ.



Back to Welcome